Do You Have a Tax-Smart Withdrawal Strategy?

你提取退休资产的计划可能和你积累退休储蓄的方法一样重要. Experts recommend various methods, 比如所谓的4%法则——每年提取你存款的4%(经通胀因素调整后)——或者将你的资产短期分成几组的三相体系, mid-term, and long-term retirement needs.

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Before you make any final decisions, 明智的做法是考虑你的退出策略所带来的税收后果. 如果你有多个账户,要接受不同的税收待遇,这可能会特别棘手. 你可能会问的问题有:(1)你想现在纳税还是以后纳税? (2)你是否应该尽可能地保持一定的资金追求增长? (3)应税分配是否会将你推入一个更高的纳税等级,或影响你的社会保障福利的可征税性?

这里有一些关于不同类型账户的税务含义的指导方针.

Taxable accounts such as savings accounts, certificates of deposit (CDs), 而且,投资账户也不提供特别的税收优惠. Although interest and dividends are taxed annually, withdrawals are typically not subject to ordinary income taxes. However, if you sell appreciated assets such as stock, they may be subject to capital gains taxes, 这些税率通常低于一般的所得税税率,但仍可能对你的纳税义务产生重大影响. 对于某些提款可能会有费用,比如从CD中提前提款.

Nonqualified annuities ——不属于个人退休账户或401(k)等合格计划的年金——通常是用税后资金购买的. 因此,只有提取年金的收益部分作为普通收入纳税. 从不合格年金中取钱有两种方式——定期提款和年金化支付. Regular withdrawals are taxed as earnings first, principal second (unless the contract was issued before August 14, 1982). 在年金化合同中,每次支付的收益部分作为普通收入纳税.

Tax-deferred retirement accounts 比如传统的个人退休账户和401(k)计划继续累积递延税款, even if you are no longer contributing to them. Because withdrawals are fully taxable as ordinary income, 你可能想要延长它们的增长潜力,并将税收推迟到退休后. 记住,你必须在72岁(7月1日之前出生的人是70.5岁)时开始从递延所得税账户中领取最低分配(rmd), 1949). Once you reach RMD age, 您可能会将rmd视为投资账户收入的“基线”,然后查看从该账户或其他账户提取额外资金的潜在税收后果.

Roth accounts include Roth IRAs and Roth 401(k)s. 合格的罗斯分配不需要缴纳联邦所得税, and original owners of Roth IRAs are not subject to RMDs. [Roth 401(k)s are subject to RMDs, 而继承的退休账户有不同的分配规则.] To be considered “qualified,“分销必须满足5年的持有要求,并且在59岁半之后进行, with certain exceptions. 因为分配是免税的,不会影响你的所得税, 你可能会决定在退休时提前或推迟领取罗斯分红, depending on your tax situation. In either case, 罗斯账户在你想要或需要取款时提供了灵活性, 或者保持资金增长以备日后提款,或者留给继承人一笔遗产.


Getting Help

近七成传统个人退休帐户的所有者表示,他们有一种管理退休后收入和资产的策略. Most of them get help from a financial professional.

拥有个人退休帐户的传统家庭中有策略的比例

Sources of help by traditional IRA-owning households who have a strategy for managing income and assets in retirement: financial professional 76% (68% primary source); website 25% (10% primary source); friends or family 25% (10% primary source); book or article 22% (4% primary source); financial software 7% (2% primary source)

虽然不能保证与金融专业人士合作会改善投资结果, 专业人士可以评估你的目标和可用beplay2,并帮助你考虑适当的长期财务策略.

Source: Investment Company Institute, 2021 (2020 data; multiple responses allowed)


在59岁半之前从所有的税收优惠计划中提前分配可能要缴纳10%的联邦所得税罚款, although there are some exceptions. Annuities generally have ­contract limitations, fees, and sales charges, which may include mortality and expense charges, investment ­manage­ment fees, administrative fees, holding periods, termination provisions, charges for optional benefits, and surrender charges (during the early years of the contract). 任何年金担保都取决于发行保险公司的财力和赔付能力. The FDIC insures CDs and bank savings accounts, which generally provide a fixed rate of return, up to $250,000 per depositor, per insured institution. 所有投资均受市场波动、风险及本金损失之影响. 当出售时,投资的价值可能高于或低于其原始成本.

一个合理的分销策略可以帮助延长投资组合的寿命. 在采取任何可能导致税务后果的行动之前,一定要咨询税务专家.