股票指数

什么是股票指数?

In 1884, Charles Henry Dow averaged the closing prices of 11 stocks he considered representative of the strength of the U.S. 在之前的一篇论文中提到的经济 《beplay2》. By 1896, 《beplay2》 定期发布这个平均值吗, and the most famous indicator of stock market performance was born: the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA or Dow).

Most people have heard of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, as well as a few other well-known stock indexes that track the overall direction of the market. Indexes and averages serve as useful benchmarks against which investors can measure the performance of their own portfolios. 取决于它的组成, a stock index can give investors some idea about the state of the market as a whole or a certain sector of the market. 从概念上讲, a shift in the price of an index represents an equitable change in the stocks included in the index.

基本上, indexes are imaginary portfolios of securities that represent a particular market or section of the market. Each index has its own method of calculating a change in its base value, 通常用百分比表示. Thus, you might hear that an index has risen or fallen by a certain percentage. 尽管你不能直接投资于非管理指数, you can invest in an index mutual fund that attempts to mirror a particular index by investing in the securities that comprise the index. The performance of an unmanaged index is not indicative of the performance of any specific 投资.

共同基金按招股说明书出售. Please consider the 投资 objectives, risks, charges, and expenses carefully before investing. 招股说明书, which contains this and other information about the 投资 company, 能从你的理财专业中获得吗. Be sure to read the prospectus carefully before deciding whether to invest.

All the stocks in an index typically have at least one element in common. 他们可能在同一个证券交易所交易, 属于同一行业, 或者有类似的市值. 一些更广为人知的指数是道琼斯指数和S&P 500, the Nasdaq Composite, 5000年威尔希尔, 罗素2000.

道琼斯工业平均指数

The Dow is an index of widely held blue-chip stocks that is used as an indicator of the performance of U.S. 行业领先的股票. Unlike most other major indexes, the stocks in the Dow are unweighted by market capitalization. The 30 stocks included in the Dow are all major factors in their industries.

S&P 500

标准的 & Poor’s 500 is an index of 500 of the most widely held stocks — leading companies from all sectors of the economy — chosen for their market size, 流动性, 行业集团代表. Because some stocks influence the market more than others, each stock is given a different weight when the calculations are made. 这被称为“市值权重”,” which is the type of weighting used for the Nasdaq Composite, 5000年威尔希尔, 罗素2000.

纳斯达克综合指数

The National Association of Securities Dealers Automated Quotation system, 或纳斯达克, 代表所有美国国内和非美国人.S. 在纳斯达克股票市场交易的美国普通股票. It includes about 3,000 companies — many of which are in the technological field. Of course, The NASDAQ Stock Market isn’t restricted to technology issues. The NASDAQ Stock Exchange was established in 1971 as the world’s first electronic stock market.

Wilshire 5000

Probably the most broadly based market index is 5000年威尔希尔 Total Market Index, 最初由5,000只股票.索引使用capitalization weighted, float-adjusted capitalization weighted, and equal weighted 返回来调整索引. 该指数跟踪a的总体表现你你.S. 有现成价格的总部股票.

罗素2000

开始于1972年, 罗素2000指数的表现约为2,000 small-cap stocks that are often omitted from large indexes. This market capitalization–weighted index serves as a benchmark for small-cap U.S. stocks and could be useful for tracking small companies with growth potential.

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Market indexes are useful for assessing the historical performance of 投资 portfolios over time, but they don’t reveal important details about the companies they track. They also have certain biases inherent in their statistical calculations. Remember that past performance is not a guarantee of future results.

If your portfolio lags substantially behind a corresponding index, 也许是时候重新评估和重新分配资产了. 一定要选择一个合适的索引作为基准. 例如, comparing a small-cap stock portfolio to the Dow Jones Industrial Average may not be very meaningful; comparing it to the 罗素2000 Index would be more appropriate. 在选择股票, it’s prudent to keep an eye on long-term performance based on certain fundamentals that may or may not be subject to market trends.

 

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